ECA&D e E-OBS: dados de alta resolução para monitorizar as alterações climáticas e os seus efeitos na viticultura na Europa
Climate change and climate variability profoundly affect the production of wine. When facing a changing climate, the characteristics of wine produced in each region will change while the natural yearto-year variations in climate will increase variability of income for wine businesses and therefore affect profitability and economic resilience. The challenge posed to the viticulture community is thus to closely monitor these changes to be able to adapt business practices. The European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) and its gridded version E-OBS are tools to monitor the changing climatic conditions over Europe, with an emphasis on changes in extreme climatic conditions. In this paper, the potential of ECA&D and EOBS for viticulture is demonstrated by a few examples. The examples include the changing areal suitable for Chardonnay cultivation, showing an expansion to areas which have been too cold only a few decades ago and retraction of optimal conditions from areas which have been suitable in the recent past. Other examples show the change in the diurnal temperature range in the latter stages of the ripening process of grapes and the variability in heavy precipitation events. Finally, first results of a new dataset for South America are presented.