Functional biodiversity in the vineyard

For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in high functional biodiversity (FB). However, in the last decades the vineyard has suffered an intensive management leaded by a high mechanisation (including frequent tilling) and/or use of Plant Protection Products (PPP) in which several ecosystem services are been affected, causing high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and high levels of agricultural inputs (Zaller et al., 2015). Therefore, there is general agreement that agricultural intensification has a deep impact on biodiversity with possible cascade effects on ecosystem functions and service delivery (Trivellone et al., 2014).