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Copper is an essential nutrient for humans, although excessive exposure can be harmful. Copper-based preparations have been used for over 200 years to control fungi and bacterial diseases in cultivated plants. Downy mildew caused by a fungus called Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most important and devastating diseases for grapevines. However, since 2006, copper use has been limited by some regulations because it can cause health and environmental problems (mainly due to its accumulation in the soil), being a little controversial with principles of sustainable production. Today, there are many compounds which have been studied that provide protection against downy mildew. However, some studies also found that many of these compounds would not actually be used as a total replacement as alternatives for copper in viticulture, for a total disease control and, some of them have secondary problems because they might induce phytotoxic effects. Current alternatives to copper allowed in EU organic agriculture, are less effective and inconsistent in controlling downy mildew with high disease pressure.